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澳洲paper代寫經濟條件下社會需求導向機制研究

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Lack of coordination on economic and social development, particularly social development lags behind the problem, people are accustomed to criticism of bias as the backwardness of economic development, and thus questioned the economic development objectives of the misconduct, and human reflect on economic development, but it seems reluctant to reflect on their own consumer behavior. Suffered economic development has been criticized, in fact, rooted in economic development objectives misconduct irrational social needs, and social needs of the non-rational society rooted in the absence of demand-driven mechanism, which is essentially passive rational society as a whole does not act, conniving Individual irrational demand for economic development misleading.
First, the absence of social demand-oriented mechanism to mislead the goal of sustained economic development
 The fundamental goal of economic activity or the ultimate goal is to meet society's consumer demand, consumer demand for both substances, including spiritual and cultural consumption. Only to meet social needs, economic activity was only proved to be co-purposeful activity, only to meet consumer demand for social, economic activity was obtained from the social value of compensation and in-kind replacement, but also will prove to be the activities of regularity. Therefore, economic activity must accept the provisions of the needs of society, or not be able to continue, is not worth going. Visible and sustained economic development and social needs are closely related to the needs of the community association epitomized the guiding role in economic development, namely economic development, social needs required a reasonable target. However, the social demand guiding role in economic development, in particular the needs of society by providing economic development goals to guide sustainable economic development is conditional, that is, the whole of human rationality as the leading establishment of mechanisms for demand-oriented society.
In the planned economy system, China's production and consumption activities are arranged by the national plan, the lack of change in the interaction between the two rigid program management has also been blocked, consumer demand for the production of the guiding role of being concealed. Since reform and opening, China's initially established a socialist market economic system, a variety of economic relations through the market quickly and effectively link up, which for the consumer guide production, demand to create the conditions for incentive provision. However, China's current social needs-oriented mechanism does not really set up. Prominent features are: first, the social consumption demand is still characterized by the individual consumer demand, lack of guidance and society as a whole rational norms, often with a non-rational characteristics, Professor Li Yining in the "Ethical Issues in Economics," a book cited six kinds of consumer behavior contrary to social norms, including the extravagant consumption, stingy, thrifty, precocious consumption, conspicuous consumption, and consumer Vulgar, etc. [1] 136-153 these to the individual consumer awareness and behavior from society heterozygous Consumer needs are often irrational. Second, the individual consumer awareness and behavior is decentralized, mutual interference, it is difficult to form a clear and consistent social consumption demand signal, vague instructions on economic development, on economic activity disturbance, guiding role is weakened. In effect, uneven economic structure, it is difficult to form the structure and industrial advantages, restricting economic development to improve the quality. Third, individuals tend to spend more immediate concerns while ignoring long-term interests, local interests while ignoring more attention to the overall interests are more concerned about their own interests while ignoring the interests of society, and thus tend to meet their individual consumption of consumer demand as power consumption, compared with less consider this individual consumer behavior on others, society and the fundamental interests of their own long-term interests. Fourth, the individual consumer demand is unstable, the individual consumer demand not only by religion, culture, education, customs, consumer ideas and other "inert" factors, so that the individual consumer needs to maintain a certain stability, while individual consumer demand Also vulnerable to consumer psychology, such as comparisons of psychological, mental sport, fashion, psychology and other "active" factors, so that the individual changes in consumer demand informality, elusive. With the growing wealth of the modern market supply and consumer culture, and the ever-changing consumer psychology, consumer demand affecting the activity of individual factors over the role of inert factors that lead to consumer demand instability become more apparent.
    Oriented economic development and social needs are closely related. Marx said: "luxury is the opposite of natural necessity. Necessary natural needs is itself the subject of the kind attributed to individual needs. Production development both abandon this natural necessity, but also abandoning the kind of luxury.}.} A7 zo Therefore, the absence of social needs-oriented mechanism to mislead goal of economic development, and thus have a serious constraint to sustainable economic development. individual irrational consumption, especially excessive consumption caused by economic expansion, increasing population, resources and environment tensions, weakening sustainable economic development capacity; scattered individual consumer demand characteristics, so difficult to unify economic development objectives, a clear, mutual interference of economic activity, internal friction, reducing the effectiveness of economic development; individual consumer demand for the development of the instability of the economy face greater uncertainty nature, take more risks, economic development, lack of a stable market environment.
Second, the social needs of the constituent elements of the guide mechanism
Needs of the community-oriented mechanism resulting in the absence of a variety of factors that influence consumer demand is difficult to form a cohesive force, consumer demand is difficult to society as a whole in the form of a rational consumer demand in favor of individual irrational consumer demand. "Consumption is a virtuous cycle of economic hub or poor circulatory point", ['] "Therefore, if consumer demand towards a rational from the irrational, the individual consumer demand toward social consumption demand factors must be integrated to a variety of consumer, the formation of social demand-oriented mechanisms to rational factors bind irrational factors, scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumer behavior integrated into rational, science, health, social consumer behavior, so that the goal of economic development more clearly, science, reasonable guide to achieve sustained economic development.
    Social demand-oriented mechanism consists of three elements, namely consumption concept, the consumption structure and consumption demand (Figure 1) a
First, the concept of consumption, ie consumption concept, is that people held under certain historical conditions to treat some of the fundamental principles of consumer and concepts, such as the Chinese people's long-held consumer frugality is a traditional concept of consumption, and in recent years from excessive consumption abroad, loan or overdraft consumer spending is a new concept of consumption. Factors affecting consumer concept is mostly philosophical level of cognitive science and cognitive concepts, such as the ecological civilization, consumer culture, consumer ethics. Concept of consumption should be generally recognized and accepted social scientific, civilized and rational consumer principles and concepts, but also society as a whole embodies the rational consumption.
    Second, the consumption structure. Consumption structure refers to the composition of consumption structure of an object that can be used a variety of consumer proportional relationship between the objects represented. According to the different main consumer, consumption structure and consumption structure can be divided into individual consumption structure of society. (A) ioa social consumption structure and consumption structure of individual factors vary, their formation, evolution, changes in the law there are certain differences. In contrast, the consumption structure of society greatly influenced by macroeconomic factors, such as consumer culture, consumption concept, the production structure, showing a significant ethnic, regional, stability and other characteristics; while individual consumption structure is often subject to consumer psychology activity factors, showed hyperactivity, personalization features.
Third, the consumer demand. Consumer demand is the consumer purchasing power in certain conditions, consumer desires. Broad consumer demand is the consumer's desire, may refer to the ability to buy - that is being met through the purchase of real desire for consumption, can also refer to the propensity to consume or consumption of pure imagination, but this consumer purchasing power due to lack of imagination support , which is unrealistic, but conditions improved in the purchasing power of the consumer imagination could be transformed into reality consumer demand. Purchasing power due to the conditions of constraint, the reality must have a clear consumer demand and consumer spending targeting quantity limits. Consumer demand and the limited nature of the target point is an important feature.
    Consumer-oriented mechanism concept in the social demand the highest level of living, social concentrated reflection of overall consumer rationality, reflecting the consumption of a given period of civilization, society has an important consumer guide, demonstration and regulations made available, resulting in a relatively stable period of time consumption structure. Consumption structure formation and stability of the carrier of social consumption concept, the reaction and the scientific concept of consumption refraction and rationality level.
Concept of consumption on the consumer's choice of target more indirect, and its mode of action and the effect is not stable. Of course, the concept of consumption of individual consumer demand, there are two direct impact on the way. First, the concept of consumption direct guidance and constraints individual consumer demand, which depends on consumer self-awareness and acceptance of the concept.
Second, the state and society through non-market means the direct consumption concept
Internalized into individual consumer demand, the common approach is mandatory spending, such as government primary and secondary schools to improve physical fitness, unified way to educate executive order to impose the "breakfast milk" consumption.
    With the concept of consumption and the effect of the mode of action compared to the consumption structure for a more direct impact on consumer demand, the effect is more pronounced because of the consumption structure of social groups is the concentrated reflection of consumer demand, but also after long-term formation of consumer groups, consumer behavior The objective results, and thus individual consumers have a direct role in guiding consumer choice. Consumers are often subject to individual consumer behavior consumer psychology herd effect, making the consumer behavior and habits of others for their own consumption choices have a demonstration effect, once the herd consumption, consumption habits will be the way to the individual consumer behavior of individuals to be cured.
    Of course, consumer demand will turn on the consumption structure and consumption concept formation and development of the role of the interaction between the three correlation is strong. However, the mechanism of view, consumption concept reflects consumer civilization, and guide rational consumption behavior of social groups to form a stable structure of consumption, on this basis, through the consumption of consumer behavior and psychological factors that affect the role of the individual, and further guide the individual consumer choice. Such collective action from concept to individual action and then to make a rational social consumer demand been consistently so scattered, mutual interference, unstable individual consumption tends to be scientific, rational, stable, so that the goal of social consumer demand clear and consistent, which needs of the community-oriented mechanism is an entire logical system. The establishment of mechanisms for internal logic of strict economic development aimed to send a clear signal that economic development must meet the needs of society as a rational target for economic development but also to pursue improper draw the red line development goals.
    Third, the social demand-oriented mechanism to sustained economic development objectives rational
    Needs of the community-oriented mechanism aims to ensure that the needs of society rational, in order to achieve sustained economic development goals correct guidance. Therefore, the role of social needs-oriented mechanism can be broken down as follows: ensuring social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, that promote scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate social consumption demand; possible to eliminate the individual consumer attitudes and consumer behavior dispersion, mutual interference, rational consumer demand to achieve social goals clear and uniform; economic activity to send a clear social demand signals to guide economic development to establish a scientific and reasonable goals.
    First, the consumption concept to guide social consumer demand reflects a rational society as a whole, thereby protecting the rational goal of sustained economic development. Reflect society as a whole concept of rational social spending should have at least four characteristics, namely, scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate. The scientific concept of consumption is the consumption behavior to follow the laws of science. Scientific concept of consumption is the cornerstone of rational consumption concept. Consumption concept of civilization, referring to consumer concept of ecological civilization, economic ethics, economic philosophy and other important carrier of scientific epistemology is about people, people and society, man and nature, as well as "a social an economic nature" and other major relationship cognitive outcomes concentrated reflection. Rational consumption concept of civilization is the highest form of consumption concept. Healthy consumption concept refers to people's consumption behavior must be to improve the quality of human survival and development as the goal, that is, people want to live a healthy and dignified. Healthy consumption concept is the fundamental concept of rational consumption purport, is to determine whether a rational consumption concept fundamental criteria. Moderate consumption concept of social consumer behavior is controlled in the appropriate limits. Put forward the concept of moderate consumption of traditional consumption concept presents challenges, namely excessive human consumption is harmful for human consumption and behavior is irrational desires should converge or prohibited. Can be summed up in one sentence: human rights do not have unlimited spending. Scientific, civilized and healthy, moderate consumption concept will ensure that the needs of society remain rational state, so that economic development to establish rational goals.
    Second, the consumption structure to guide scattered individual propensity to consume propensity to consume unified into society as a whole, economic development, and thus convey to clear and consistent signals to guide the sustainable economic development to establish rational goals. Practice has proved that the consumption structure by consumer culture, consumer fashion, consumer spending trends and other established standards and consumption patterns, and guide consumers to imitate behavior; either through competition, herding, sporting and other consumer psychology, prompting consumers herd consumption; or through Consumer reaction production, consumption structure triggered - production structure adjustment, thereby forcing consumers not established mandatory consumption targets consumer choice, and that the market does not provide the supply to meet consumer other consumer choices.
 
對經濟社會發展的不協調,尤其是社會發展滯后問題,人們習慣偏至于批判經濟發展方式的落后,進而質疑經濟發展目標的失當,而人類在反思經濟發展的同時,卻似乎不太情愿反思自身的消費行為。經濟發展飽受垢病,其實經濟發展目標的失當根源于社會需求的非理性,而社會非理性需求則根源于社會需求導向機制的缺位,這實質上是社會整體理性的消極不作為,縱容個體非理性需求對經濟發展的誤導。 
首先,缺乏社會需求為導向的機制來誤導經濟持續發展的目標
 經濟活動的根本目標或最終目標是為了滿足社會的消費需求,消費需求,這兩種物質,包括精神和文化消費。只有滿足社會需求,唯一的經濟活動被證明是共同目的的活動,只有滿足消費者的需求,獲得社會,經濟活動的社會價值補償和實物替換,也將被證明是活動規律性。因此,經濟活動必須接受社會需求的規定,或無法繼續,是不是值得去。可見,經濟持續發展和社會的需求是密切相關的社會各界的需要,協會體現在經濟發展中的導向作用,即經濟發展,社會需要一個合理的目標。然而,社會需求導向,在經濟發展中的作用,尤其是社會的需求,通過提供經濟發展目標,以引導經濟的可持續發展是有條件的,那就是整個人類理性為主導的社會需求為導向,建立機制。
在計劃經濟體制下,中國的生產和消費活動是由國家計劃安排的變化缺乏在兩個剛性項目管理之間的互動也被封鎖,消費需求對生產的指導作用被掩蓋。改革開放以來,我國初步建立了社會主義市場經濟體制,各種經濟關系的迅速和有效地通過市場連接起來,這對于的消費者指導生產,需求創造了條件,提供激勵。然而,中國目前的社會需求為導向的機制并沒有真正成立。突出的特點是:第一,社會消費需求的特點仍然是個人消費需求,缺乏指導和社會作為一個整體合理的規范,往往是一種非理性的特點,厲以寧教授在“經濟學的倫理問題,”一本書列舉了6種消費行為相反的社會規范,包括奢侈消費,吝嗇,節儉,早熟消費,炫耀性消費,消費者俗,等[1] 136-153,這些個人的消費意識和行為,從社會雜合消費者的需求往往是不合理的。二,個人消費意識和行為是分散的,相互干擾,就很難形成一個明確的,一貫的社會消費需求的信號,對經濟發展的含糊指示,對經濟活動的干擾,引導作用被削弱。實際上,不均衡的經濟結構,它是難以形成的結構,產業優勢,制約經濟發展以提高質量。第三,個人往往要花費更直接的關注​​,而忽視了長遠利益,局部利益,而忽視了更注重整體利益,更關心自己的利益,而忽略了社會的利益,因而往往滿足其個性化的消費現狀,消費功耗的需求,比較少考慮這個個人消費行為對他人,社會和自己的長遠利益的根本利益。四,個體消費者的需求是不穩定的,個體消費者的需求不僅受到宗教,文化,教育,海關,消費者的想法和其他的“惰性”因素,使個別消費者的需要保持一定的穩定性,而個人消費需求也脆弱的消費心理,如攀比心理,精神運動,時尚,心理學和其他“積極”的因素,使個體消費者的需求變化不拘,難以捉摸。隨著現代市場供應和消費文化的日益豐富,以及千變萬化的消費心理,消費需求的個別因素影響的活動的作用的惰性,導致消費需求不穩定的因素變得更加明顯。
    外向型經濟的發展和社會的需要,是密切相關的。馬克思說:“奢華的對立面是自然需要必要的自然需要,是本身的主題歸結為個性化需求的一種生產發展都放棄這種自然的必要性,同時也放棄了一種奢侈。}} A7 ZO因此,社會需求為導向的機制誤導經濟發展目標,從而缺乏嚴重制約經濟的可持續發展。個別不合理的消費,特別是過度消費引起的經濟擴張,人口不斷增加,資源和環境的緊張,削弱了經濟可持續發展容量,分散的個體消費者的需求特點,所以很難統一經濟發展目標,明確,相互干擾的經濟活動,內部摩擦,降低經濟發展的有效性;個人消費需求的不穩定的經濟發展面臨較大的不確定性自然,冒更大的風險,經濟發展缺乏一個穩定的市場環境。
第二,引導機構的構成要素的社會需要
需要面向社會機制,在多種因素影響消費者的需求是難以形成合力的情況下,消費者的需求是難以向社會作為一個整體的形式理性消費需求,有利于個別不合理消費者的需求。 “消費是經濟中心的良性循環或循環不佳點”,[']“因此,如果消費者從非理性走向理性的需求,個人消費需求向社會消費需求的因素必須被集成到各種消​​費,社會需求為導向的機制,以理性的因素結合形成非理性的因素,分散,相互干擾,不穩定融入理性,科學,衛生,社會消費行為的個人消費行為,使經濟發展的目標更加清晰,科學,合理引導實現經濟持續發展。
    社會需求為導向的機制包括三個要素,即消費觀念,消費結構和消費需求(圖1)
首先,在概念的消費,即消費的概念,是舉行,在一定的歷史條件下,以治療的根本原則,消費者和概念,如中國人的長期持有的消費者節儉的人,是一個傳統的消費觀,并在近年來從國外過度消費,貸款或透支消費支出是一種新的消費觀念。消費理念的影響因素主要是哲學層面的認知科學和認知的概念,如生態文明,消費文化,消費倫理。消費理念應該被普遍認可和接受的社會科學,文明,理性的消費原則和概念,但社會作為一個整體也體現了理性消費。
    其次,消費結構。消費結構是指消費結構的組成,可用于各種消費之間的比例關系表示的對象的對象。根據不同的消費主力,消費結構和消費結構可分為個人消費的社會結構。 (A)IOA社會消費結構和消費結構的個別因素各不相同,它們的形成,演變,變化的規律,也有一定的差別。相比之下,受宏觀經濟因素,如消費文化,消費觀念,生產結構,呈現顯著的民族,區域,穩定等特點,而個人消費結構往往受消費者心理活動因素極大地影響了社會的消費結構,表現為多動,個性化的功能。
第三,消費者的需求。消費者的需求是消費者的購買力,在一定條件下,消費欲望。廣闊的消費需求是消費者的愿望,可能是指購買能力 - 那是被滿足通過購買消費的真實愿望,也可以參考的傾向消費或消費憑空想像,但這個消費者購買電源因缺乏想象力的支持,這是不現實的,但條件改善消費者想象力的購買力可能轉化為現實消費需求。現實的購買力,由于約束條件,必須有一個明確的目標數量限制的消費需求和消費支出。消費者的需求和目標點的有限性是一個重要特征。
    以消費者為導向機制的概念在社會需求的最高水平的生活,社會整體消費理性的集中反映,反映一定時期內文明的消費,社會具有重要的消費引導,示范和法規,導致在一個相對穩定一段時間消費結構。消費結構的載體,社會消費觀念,消費折射和理性水平的反應和科學發展觀的形成和穩定。
消費者的選擇目標更間接的消費,其作用方式和效果的概念并不穩定。當然,個人消費需求,消費觀念,有兩個直接影響的方式。首先,消費的直接指導和約束個別消費者的需求,這取決于消費者的自我意識和接受的概念的概念。
其次,通過非市場手段對國家和社會的直接消費觀念
內化為個人的消費需求,常用的方法是強制消費,如政府中小學,以提高身體素質,統一的方式來教育行政命令強加的“早餐奶”的消費。
    隨著概念的消費和消費結構相比,消費者的需求更直接的影響的作用方式的效果,效果更加明顯,因為社會群體的消費結構,消費需求的集中反映,也經過長期形成的消費群體,消費行為的客觀結果,因而個人消費者在引導消費者的選擇有直接的作用。消費者往往受到個人消費行為,消費心理從眾效應,使得他人的消費行為和習慣,為自己的消費選擇產生示范效應,一旦從眾消費,消費習慣將是個人對個人的消費行為被治愈。
    當然,消費者的需求將開啟的消費結構和消費觀念的形成和發展三者之間的相關性的互動的作用是強大的。然而,這一機制來看,消費觀念的反映消費者的文明,并引導理性消費行為的社會群體,形成一個穩定的消費結構,在此基礎上,通過消費的消費行為和心理因素會影響個人的作用,進一步引導個體消費者的選擇。從概念到個人行動,然后做出一個理性的社會消費需求一直如此分散的這種集體行動,相互干擾,不穩定的個人消費趨于科學,合理,穩定,使社會消費需求的目標明確和一貫的,需要面向社會機制是一個完整的邏輯體系。嚴格的經濟發展的內在邏輯機制的設立,旨在發出一個明確的信號,作為一個理性的經濟發展目標,經濟發展必須滿足社會的需求,而且要追求不當劃紅線的發展目標。
    第三,社會需求為導向的機制,以經濟持續發展的目標合理
    需要面向社會機制,旨在確保社會理性的需求,以實現經濟的持續發展目標的正確指導。因此,社會需求導向機制的作用,可以分解如下:確保社會消費需求的反映作為一個整體,一個理性的社會,提倡科學,文明,健康,適度的社會消費需求;可以消除個人消費態度消費行為分散,相互干擾,合理的消費需求,實現社會的目標明確和統一的經濟活動,社會發出一個明確的需求信號,引導經濟發展,建立一套科學合理的目標。
    首先,消費觀念,引導社會消費需求反映一個理性的社會作為一個整體,從而保障經濟持續發展的合理的目標。反映社會作為一個整體合理的社會支出的概念,應該有至少有四個特點,即科學,文明,健康的,適度的。科學的消費觀念,消費行為,遵循科學規律。科學的消費觀念,理性消費理念的基石。文明的消費理念,指的是消費理念生態文明,經濟倫理,經濟哲學和其他科學認識論的重要載體,是人與人,人與社會,人與自然,以及“社會的經濟性質”和其他主要關系的認知結果的集中反映。文明理性的消費觀念,消費觀念的最高形式。健康的消費觀念是指人們的消費行為,必須是人類生存和發展以提高質量為目標,那就是人們想要一個健康和有尊嚴的生活。健康的消費觀念是理性消費的基本概念主旨,是要確定是否理性消費觀的根本標準。適度消費觀念的社會消費行為控制在適當的限制。提出適度消費的概念,傳統的消費觀念提出了挑戰,即人類食用過多是有害的供人類消費行為是不合理的欲望應該收斂或禁止。可以概括起來就是一句話:沒有人權無限的支出。科學,文明,健康,適度的消費觀念將確保社會的需求保持理性狀態,使經濟的發展,制定合理的目標。
    其次,消費結構,引導消費分散的個體傾向消費傾向統一到社會作為一個整體,經濟發展,從而傳達明確和一貫的信號,引導經濟的可持續發展,制定合理的目標。實踐已經證明,消費結構,消費文化,消費時尚,消費者的消費趨勢和其他既定標準和消費模式,引導消費者模仿行為;無論是通過競爭,放牧,體育和其他消費者的消費心理,促使消費者從眾消費;通過消費者反應生產,消費結構的觸發 - 生產結構的調整,從而迫使消費者沒有建立強制消費的目標消費者選擇,市場不提供電源,以滿足消費者的其他消費選擇。


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